History of Morocco :
Unlike other North African nations, Morocco has been inhabited since time immemorial. The Berbers, or imasighen ("men of the earth"), settled thousands of years ago and came to control all the territory between Morocco and Egypt. Divided into clans and tribes, have always jealously guarded their independence and precisely this characteristic has helped preserve one of the most fascinating cultures of the continent.
The early Berbers remained undaunted by the invasions of the Phoenician colonists, and even the Romans failed to alter their way of life after the sack of Carthage in 146 BC They brought a long period of peace during which many cities were founded, and the natives of the coastal plains became residents. Christianity made its appearance in the third century, and again the Berbers asserted their traditional opposition to centralized power becoming followers of Donatus (a Christian cult leader who claimed that the Donatists were the only true Church).
Islam burst onto the world scene in the seventh century, when Arab armies crossed the border. Quickly conquered Egypt and came to control all of northern Africa to the early eighth century. After this invasion emerged losalmorávides, who occupied Marruecosy Muslim Andalusia; founded Marrakech, which was appointed as its capital, but soon fueronreemplazados by the Almohads.
Under these new rulers a professional civil service was established and the cities of Fez, Marrakesh, Tlemcen and Rabat reached the zenith of its cultural splendor; But eventually weakened by their defeats in Spain to the Christians, Muslim rule began to falter. Instead came the land meronitas Moroccan interior and the area resurfaced until the culmination of the Christian reconquest of Spain in 1492 sparked the riots that would erase the new dynasty in less than a hundred years.
After the establishment and fall of several dynasties of short duration, in the 1630s the Alawite dynasty imposed a stranglehold remains strong today. With his pragmatism and despite the difficulties, he has maintained over more than three hundred years the independence of Morocco.
In the late nineteenth century European traders were introduced, and with them a long period of colonial renovations. Then came the interest of France, Spain and Germany invade due to its strategic location and its wealth of business resources. The French defeated and occupied almost the entire country in 1912; Spain remained a small coastal protectorate and Tangier was declared international territory.
The French Marshal Lyautey respected Arab culture. Rather than destroy the existing Moroccan towns built new cities in their proximidades.Convirtió in the capital Rabat and Casablanca enhanced port. The sultánpermaneció, but only as a symbolic figure. Lyautey's successors were not so sensitive: its efforts to speed French rule brought the people of the Rif Mountains, led by the Berber scholar Abd el-Krim, to rise up against the occupation forces. Only the union of hispanofranceses 25,000 soldiers could finally force Abd el-Krim to surrender in 1926 By 1930 more than two hundred thousand French had made his home in Morocco. During World War II the Allied forces used the country as a base from which to drive the Germans out of North Africa.
After the war, Sultan Mohammed V created an independence party that finally secured Moroccan independence in 1956.
King Mohammed V proclaimed in 1957 and was followed five years later by his son, Hassan II. This popular leader cemented his charisma among Moroccans organizing the Green March Western Sahara, formerly occupied by Spain. With a force of 350,000 volunteers, Hassan's followers bowed to the Sahrawis to claim the area, rich in minerals, including itself.
The approximately one hundred thousand inhabitants of the Sahara did not accept the invasion and demanded their independence. The Popular Front of Western Sahara Liberation Sakia al-Hamra and Rio de Oro (Polisario) launched a war of independence. In 1991, the United Nations intervened in a cease-fire and more recently have decided to stay in the area. While the Moroccan population in general applauded the southern invasion, it antagonized both the Algerian neighbors as the Western Saharans themselves. Since then, relations between Morocco and Algeria are very precarious.
In July 1999, King Hassan II, who had reigned as absolute monarch (although some semi-democratic changes in the constitution) for 38 years, was succeeded on his death on the throne by his son, King Mohammed VI, who promised eliminate government corruption, press freedom facilitate and institutionalize democratic reform as soon as possible. The long-awaited democratic reforms collide with a wall in this country still stuck in their feudal roots, but it seems the young monarch intends to give an opportunity to the nation.